The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of western culture were those of Mesopotamia ; the area of the Tigris—Euphrates river system , largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq , northeastern Syria , southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran: What we think of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Ages , the Renaissance , and the Enlightenment , as well as Christian culture. Western culture is neither homogeneous nor unchanging. As with all other cultures, it has evolved and gradually changed over time. Nevertheless, it is possible to follow the evolution and history of the West, and appreciate its similarities and differences, its borrowings from, and contributions to, other cultures of humanity. Alexander the Great In Homeric literature , and right up until the time of Alexander the Great , for example in the accounts of the Persian Wars of Greeks against Persians by Herodotus , we see the paradigm of a contrast between the West and East.

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Christmas

The term Yule is of disputed origin. It is unconnected with any word meaning “wheel”. The name in Anglo-Saxon was geol, feast: Icelandic iol a feast in December. Early celebration Christmas was not among the earliest festivals of the Church. Irenaeus and Tertullian omit it from their lists of feasts ; Origen , glancing perhaps at the discreditable imperial Natalitia, asserts in Lev.

Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed. The method compares the abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope within the material to the abundance of its decay products, which form at a known constant rate of decay.

See Article History Alternative Titles: AcropolisThe Acropolis and surrounding area, Athens. Greater Athens has an area of square miles square km. For treatment of the city in its regional setting, see Greece ; historical and cultural aspects are treated further in the article ancient Greek civilization. Physical and human geography Character of the city Athens, with its tall buildings and contemporary shops, is the first European city when approached from the Middle East.

When approached from the west, from elsewhere in Europe, what strikes the visitor is the influence of the East—in the food, music, and clamorous street life—perhaps vestiges of a time when Athens was divorced from European society under the yoke of Ottoman rule. Nevertheless, it is wrong to say that Athens is a mixture of East and West: The city, after all, nurtured Western civilization thousands of years ago.

Athens remains on the world stage to this day. Notably, in the world came to the city for the Olympic Games , which spurred a dramatic makeover for Athens.

Radiometric dating

Abstract The temporal link between large igneous province LIP eruptions and at least half of the major extinctions of the Phanerozoic implies that large scale volcanism is the main driver of mass extinction. Here we review almost twenty biotic crises between the early Cambrian and end Cretaceous and explore potential causal mechanisms. Many, but not all of these are accompanied by large negative carbon isotope excursions, supporting a volcanogenic origin.

Most post-Silurian biocrises affected both terrestrial and marine biospheres, suggesting that atmospheric processes were crucial in driving global extinctions.

DPH promotes the health and well-being of all residents by ensuring access to high-quality public health and healthcare services, and by focusing on prevention, wellness and health equity in all people.

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On the Rarity of Foreign Women and Chinese Boyfriends/Chinese Husbands

If you go to any major city in China, you will invariably run into the foreign man-Chinese woman pairings in any major tourist or shopping destination; not so with foreign women and Chinese men. There are hardly enough books depicting foreign women with Chinese boyfriends or husbands. West Wind Buck, Pearl S. Oriental Novels of Pearl S.

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On Santa Rosa Island, one of the Channel Islands just 65 kilometers from Santa Barbara, nearly 20 sites have been found that reveal signs of prehistoric human activity, from massive middens of abalone shells to distinctive stone points and tool-making debris. Torben Rick of the Smithsonian Institution, who led the survey that uncovered the sites. The discovery adds hefty new data to the already mounting evidence that maritime Paleoindians — also known as Paleocoastal peoples — lived along the California coast at the end of the last ice age.

Modern members of the Chumash, who have inhabited the Channel Islands for thousands of years, re-create a crossing to the islands in a tomol canoe. Uncovering hard evidence of this coastal migration has proved challenging, however, because the shorelines that Paleocoastal people would have followed have long since been submerged by rising seas. It was while studying some of these sites on San Miguel Island — another of the Channel Islands — that Rick and his colleagues made a key observation: They noted that Paleocoastal settlements tended to have certain traits in common that made them more suitable than sites right on the water.

Optimal locations were also near sources of useful raw materials, like chert for making tools, as well as fresh water and rockshelters or caves for refuge. Distinctive crescent-shaped stone tools, like this from neighboring San Miguel Island, are among the Paleocoastal artifacts that have been identified.

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William Adams William Adams is a European explorer and straightforward writer. Rooted in the West, he temporarily leaves home for more exotic excursions. Mainly focuses on Western and East Asian history and culture, game, travel, self-improvement, politics and economics. Both of them have referred to another important figure within academia, namely Charles Murray and his work Human Accomplishment , which highlights the fact that the largest share of great inventors and scientists stem from the Western world.

It takes a whole new level of ahistorical deconstructionism and revisionism in any attempt to relativize these undisputable findings. This is also partly why nationalists and conservatives are winning ground in the verbal culture wars.

From crypto-Zionist left-Bolshevism and right-Neoconservatism in the Diaspora, through naked Jewish national socialism in Israel, Judeo supremacist (Zionist) movements have murdered and terrorized millions in pursuit of a messianic, “Chosen Race” agenda.

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Department of Public Health

This is a program for families and individuals who meet certain income and resource guidelines. Once the application is received, you will be contacted by a DTA staffer and an interview will be conducted, usually over the phone. Governor Baker is actively involved with implementing the new landmark mandatory health care law. The Commonwealth Health Connector was established to help you find the right health plan for you, your family or employees. MassHealth offers benefits to a wide range of people who meet eligibility rules, including family size and income.

If you are under age 65 and want to apply for MassHealth, additional information on applying can be found here ” How to Apply.

Surface mass balance estimates are constantly improving as scientists gain better understandings of glacio-isostatic adjustment, improve glacier modelling techniques and gain access to higher resolution satellite datasets over longer timescales e mass balance estimates therefore tend to improve over time, but are subject to large uncertainties 4.

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How Shaw defended Stalin’s mass killings

At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3.

Nearly a hundred skeletons buried in a cave in southeast Utah offer grisly evidence that ancient Americans waged war on each other as much as 2, years ago, according to new research. Dozens of bodies, dating from the first century CE, bear clear signs of hand-to-hand combat: skulls crushed as if.

The establishment of Western musical traditions Roots in antiquity Ancient Middle East and Egypt The inhabitants of the Mesopotamian region around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers —the Sumerians , the Babylonians , and the Assyrians —flourished from about to about bce. Their pictures and the few surviving artifacts indicate that they had instruments of every basic type: An undecipherable hymn engraved in stone, dating from about bce, is evidence of a primitive system of musical notation.

The Egyptians , entering historical times about years later than the Mesopotamians, enjoyed all of the same types of activities and instruments, as may be deduced from numerous written references to music as well as seen on many artifacts, especially the pictures preserved on pottery utensils. The musical culture of the Hebrew peoples , recorded from about bce and documented primarily in the Hebrew Bible Old Testament , was more directly influential in the West because of its adoption and adaptation into the Christian liturgy.

Ancient Greece Of the eastern Mediterranean cultures, it was undoubtedly that of the Greeks that furnished the most direct link with the musical development of western Europe, by way of the Romans, who defeated them but adopted much of Greek culture intact. Entering historical times relatively late, circa bce, the Greeks soon dominated their neighbours and absorbed many elements of earlier cultures, which they modified and combined into an enlightened and sophisticated civilization. The two basic Greek religious cults—one devoted to Apollo , the other to Dionysus —became the prototypes for the two aesthetic poles, classical and romantic , that have contended throughout Western cultural history.

The Apollonians were characterized by objectivity of expression, simplicity, and clarity, and their favoured instrument was the kithara , a type of lyre. The Dionysians, on the other hand, preferred the reed-blown aulos and were identified by subjectivity, emotional abandon, and sensuality.

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